Norman Osborn (a.k.a. Green Goblin) is the CEO of OsCorp and secretly the supervillain and soon, a God. Goblin is widely recognized as the arch-foe of Spider-Man. He serves as the main antagonist of the series Ultimate Spider-Man.
An event, which takes place around the time of the events of Fantastic Four #1-4, is Norman’s first “post explosion” appearance, and thus marks the beginning of his assault on the criminal underworld. In this story, Osborn comes into conflict with the still amnesiac and homeless Namor when he trashes some of the machinery at one of Norman’s businesses. At this point, Norman already has the public reputation as a ruthless businessman and a close affiliation with the hired goons known as the Enforcers. When Namor’s companion, an “off the wagon” street vagrant named John, returns to the scene where Namor had trashed Osborn’s property to remove his fingerprints, Norman is there waiting for him. The Enforcers beat him to within inches of his life in effort to find out who was responsible for these actions against Norman. John doesn’t rat out Namor and Norman and his crew leave the alcoholic for dead.
In Amazing Spider-Man #10, Spidey defeats the Enforcers and unmasks Frederick Foswell as the Big Man. With the Big Man out of commission, Norman sends the Headsman to take out Spider-Man, who Norman feels is going to be disruptive to his plans. Spider-Man defeats the Headsman and the Enforcers as well. At this point, Norman has the Scorcher, Enforcers, and the Headsman working for him. He has hired the Scorcher specifically to steal more plans for electronics equipment, turbine engines, and explosives so that Osborn can use them for his desires. However, Norman is infuriated by the failure of his associates and resolves to handling the problem himself. Norman is seen having sketched the mask for his Goblin persona. Osborn adopts the bizarre identity of the Green Goblin, based on a monster he feared in his childhood. His arsenal of weapons includes a personal flying device, which starts in a broomstick-like shape and evolves into his Goblin Glider. He also develops hand grenade-like explosive weapons resembling pumpkins, sharp shuriken-like razor-bats, and gloves that fire blasts of energy from the fingertips.
The first direct conflict between Spider-Man and the Green Goblin occurs when the Goblin convinces Hollywood movie executive B.J. Cosmos that he can get Spider-Man and they can then make a movie with him. The Goblin enlists the help of the Enforcers for his trap, since they were recently defeated by Spider-Man. During a "rehearsal", Spider-Man is attacked and the fight interrupts the Hulk, who was seeking solitude. The Green Goblin escapes while Spider-Man is distracted by the Hulk and the Enforcers. Later, the Green Goblin approaches Lucky Lobo and claims to be able to take out Spider-Man and the Headsman. While Spider-Man struggles against the Headsman, the Goblin easily defeats the Headsman who claims he failed while using technology given to him by the Goblin. Spider-Man is unaware that it is the Goblin who has defeated the Headsman. Later, after defeating a “robo” spidey, the Green Goblin feels he’s ready to challenge Spider-Man and defeat him this time. He chooses to attack Spider-Man at the first meeting of the Spider-Man Fan Club. The Human Torch interrupts the fight, but the Goblin evades him and escapes before being caught. Spider-Man bails out of the fight because he hears that Aunt May has suffered a heart attack. Soon after, the Green Goblin approaches the Scarecrow and offers an alliance with him as he, the Green Goblin, unites the underworld. The Scarecrow refuses to be his ally. The Green Goblin then approaches the gang boss Lucky Lobo and requests that he hand over the leadership of his criminal operations to him. Lucky refuses. The Green Goblin then exposes Lucky to the public and the police raid Lucky’s establishments. Spider-Man sees this and he tails the Goblin as he goes after Lucky. Spider-Man takes down Lucky’s crew and then goes after the Goblin. The Goblin escapes before being captured by Spider-Man.
After unsuccessfully taking over Lucky Lobo’s operations, the Green Goblin initiates an alliance with the Crime Master. The Crime Master agrees to ally himself with the Green Goblin, if the Goblin reveals his true identity to him. Norman double crosses the Crime Master and exposes himself as J. Jonah Jameson. During a dedication ceremony, a distraction set up by Norman, the Crime Master’s men attempt to steal a Seismic Ray Device (S.R.D.). Spider-Man stops them and the Green Goblin intervenes to get the S.R.D. The Crime Master feels the Green Goblin is settling a personal vendetta, so he tries to kill Spider-Man and the Green Goblin at the same time. The Goblin escapes from Spider-Man and vows to “deal” with the Crime Master who now has the ability to reveal his identity because of his close association with J. Jonah Jameson. It is revealed that the true identity of the Crime Master is Nick Lewis. The Crime Master decides he no longer wants to work with the Green Goblin and that he is going to pursue uniting the underworld on his own. The Crime Master begins making power moves at known mobs and he even manages to take down Spider-Man, or so he thinks. The Green Goblin manages to sneak up on Spider-Man and is able to deliver a knockout blow with his glider. He then takes the unconscious Spider-Man to the collection of gangsters that the Crime Master has assembled in an effort to assert his leadership. The Green Goblin has a chance to unmask Spider-Man but Spider-Man was wearing a cheap second-hand costume (as he had lost the original at this point) which he kept together with webbing. The mask was webbed on and therefore impossible to remove; he kept up the criminals' faith by claiming “There’ll be time for that later!” With Spider-Man as a captive of the Green Goblin, he swayed a whole room filled with mobsters to follow his lead. However, Spider-Man soon regains consciousness from the nerve gas he was exposed to and is able to get out of the chains that had bound him. With the help of the police, Spider-Man is able to subdue the mobsters, yet the Crime Master and the Green Goblin get away. Soon after, however, the Crime Master is caught and killed by the police before he can reveal the Goblin’s identity. The Goblin is now fed up with Spider-Man and his goals switch from uniting the underworld to a personal vendetta with Spider-Man.
Vendetta against Spider-Man
After multiple conflicts with Spider-Man, the Green Goblin soon begins to view his foe as a personal rival, and not just an obstacle on his way to controlling the underworld. The Goblin soon returns from the shadows and stages a robbery in an effort to attract Spider-Man. During the fight with the robbers, Spider-Man is exposed to a gas, designed by the Goblin, to dull his Spider-Sense. This allows the Goblin to track Spider-Man and obtain his true identity as Peter Parker. The Goblin then confronts Spider-Man outside his home and the Goblin is able to subdue Spider-Man. Back at his waterfront hideout while Spider-Man is restrained, the Green Goblin exposes his true identity as Norman Osborn. The Goblin soon frees Spider-Man from the restraints because it would be a hollow victory to defeat an impaired Spider-Man. The Goblin is confident because he feels Spider-Man has yet to defeat him in battle. During the ensuing fight, the Goblin is knocked unconscious by an “electro-chemical charge”. His exposure to the charge results in Norman getting temporary amnesia and forgetting the “last few years” and thus ever becoming the Green Goblin. Peter changes Norman back into one of his civilian suits and the authorities believe the Green Goblin died in the fire.
Later, while Norman is living a Goblin-free life, Kraven the Hunter crosses his path because he is convinced Norman is the Goblin’s messenger. Kraven claims that the Green Goblin offered him $20K to kill Spider-Man and he wanted an advance payment, but he couldn’t collect from the Goblin directly because he believed the Goblin was dead. Unable to locate Norman, Kraven abducts Harry Osborn only to be thwarted by Spider-Man. Norman arrives during the fight and Kraven immediately attacks him. However, Kraven soon becomes convinced that Norman does not know anything about the Green Goblin nor the money he owes Kraven. Kraven leaves Norman unharmed, as Norman was saved by his amnesia. Some time after those events, Norman meets Kraven and offers him a great deal of money as well as an alliance. Norman assures Kraven that he will someday control a vast worldwide empire. However, Kraven feels dishonored by Norman’s actions and ends their brief alliance.
Norman continues to be periodically troubled by memories of the Green Goblin and Spider-Man. The memories amount to nothing other than lashing out at the people around him, namely Harry, J. Jonah, and Peter. During a presentation by Captain George Stacy on supervillains, Norman’s memory is sparked by images of the Goblin battling Spider-Man. He remembers that he is the Goblin and he is ready to exact his revenge on Peter Parker. Norman holds a gathering for Harry and his friends in order to get Peter in a vulnerable situation. Peter creates a diversion and gets out of Norman’s home, but the Goblin goes to Aunt May’s house. A fight ensues and Spider-Man is exposed to a psychedelic bomb, which allows the Goblin to render Spider-Man helpless. However, Spider-Man soon recovers and he uses the same psychedelic bomb on the Goblin, which induces another amnesia spell. At this point, Norman is still unaware the he is the Green Goblin.
Some time later, after watching a show featuring Mary Jane Watson, Norman is troubled by a door that he sees in a back alleyway. Peter follows Norman and changes into his Spidey costume. The door turns out to be that of an old Goblin hideout and when Norman goes in his memory is jogged and he again becomes the Green Goblin. A fight ensues and the Goblin thinks he has left Spider-Man to fall to his death. Meanwhile, Harry overdoses on pills in an attempt to get Mary Jane off his mind. Harry is then taken in an ambulance to the hospital for treatment. A second battle between the Goblin and Spider-Man occurs and Spidey guides the Goblin on his glider to see Harry in the hospital. The vision of Harry causes Norman to breakdown, once again having temporary amnesia and forgetting that he is the Goblin and that Peter is Spider-Man. As traumatic as these events were, Norman’s next dealing with Peter would prove his most tragic.
Tragedy of Norman Osborn and Gwen Stacy
Norman's conflict with Peter at a very personal level began in the pages of Amazing Spider-Man #39. The stresses that ultimately lead Norman to unleash the Goblin's fury on Spider-Man do not even originate from the wall crawler himself. In fact, Harry's drug addiction resurfaces and he becomes bed ridden from overdosing on LSD. The stress from Harry and the news that his company’s stock is down 13% causes Norman to lose control, have delusions involving Spider-Man and eventually revert to the Green Goblin. He once again plans to exact his revenge upon Spider-Man and this time in doing so, he kidnaps Gwen Stacy who was at Peter’s home waiting for him. Spider-Man tracks the Goblin to the Brooklyn Bridge where a fight ensues and the Goblin knocks Gwen off of the side of the bridge. In one of the most memorable comic panels of the Silver Age, Spider-Man shoots a web line to catch the falling Gwen, but the jolt from the sudden stop appears to snap Gwen's neck. Because of that, Peter to this day feels guilty for her death, in the same way he feels remorse for his Uncle Ben's death. Of interesting note, in Kurt Busiek's Marvels, photographer Phil Sheldon witnesses both the Green Goblin leaving the apartment with Gwen Stacy and her death on the bridge. Enraged by the Goblin's brutal plan, Spider-Man continues fighting him on the bridge. Spider-Man's fury blinds him and he gets sloppy; he is knocked out by a bridge cable, allowing the Goblin to escape. Luckily, Peter gets a tip from Joe Robertson that leads him to finding Norman at his Goblin hideout. In the ensuing fight, Spider-Man is able to neutralize the Goblin, but the Goblin sends his Goblin Glider to hit Spider-Man from behind. Spider-Man ducks to avoid the glider and the Goblin is impaled, causing his “death.” Peter feels no retribution in watching Norman die. There is a mysterious figure watching all these events transpire and it is later revealed to be Harry Osborn.
Green Goblin appears in the 1960s animated television series, voiced by Len Carlson. Although the Goblin here is depicted as a dimwitted robber who is obsessed with magic and the supernatural - fields of expertise that Norman Osborn in the comics is never interested in (save for one incident in the late 1990s), preferring to use technology to commit crimes. He appears in the episodes "The Witching Hour", "Magic Malice", and "To Catch a Spider".
Spider-Man and His Amazing Friends
Green Goblin appears in the 1980s Spider-Man and His Amazing Friends cartoon show, which depicts Norman Osborn, voiced by Neil Ross, as something closer to The Lizard, with a serious medical problem of physically and uncontrollably changing into the Green Goblin, voiced by Dennis Marks. This version of the character has a niece by the name of Mona Osborn, who had no knowledge of her uncle's double identity. When she was held captive by the Green Goblin, she stated that he looked familiar. He appears in the episodes "The Triumph of the Green Goblin" and "The Quest of the Red Skull".
The solo Spider-Man series' version, which ran around the same time, is truer to the original comic book (in which Osborn suffered from amnesia and wore a Goblin costume instead of physically transforming into the Goblin), with the Goblin appearing in "Revenge of the Green Goblin".
The Green Goblin appears in the 1990s Spider-Man: The Animated Series, voiced by English actor Neil Ross. Unlike his comic counterpart, Norman Osborn here is not an insane version of himself, and has instead developed a multiple personality disorder. His other personality is the Green Goblin, who acts on destroying everyone who has hurt Osborn throughout his life. In this incarnation, Osborn is a responsible father and inventor, though ruthless businessman, who gets caught up in the Kingpin's affairs. Also, unlike the comic book version, who considers his son weak, the animated series' Osborn cares deeply for Harry.
For the first two seasons of the show, Osborn appeared as a corrupt industrialist, pressured into supplying the Kingpin with weapons and chemicals. In the Goblin's debut episode, "Enter the Green Goblin", Norman Osborn is exposed to a gas that greatly increases his physical strength but also drives him insane. The gas also somehow alters the Hobgoblin's (who in the animated series came before the Green Goblin, unlike the comics) equipment, which had been created at Oscorp, and Norman dons it, becoming the Green Goblin. He then kidnaps various Oscorp stockholders (including Wilson Fisk (Kingpin) and Felicia Hardy's mother) that had tormented Norman. In "Goblin War!", Norman Osborn becomes the Green Goblin again, defeating the Hobgoblin and stealing his Time Dilation Accelerator, a machine capable of generating portals. In the next episode "Turning Point", the Green Goblin finds out Spider-Man's secret identity, kidnaps Mary Jane, and fights Spider-Man atop the George Washington Bridge. In the end, the Goblin gets stuck in another dimension, after his glider pushes him through a portal. In "The Return of the Green Goblin", the Green Goblin appears to Harry Osborn, and lures him into becoming the new Green Goblin. In "The Wedding", Green Goblin appears again to convince Harry Osborn to become the Green Goblin again when he hears that Peter Parker and Mary Jane are going to get married, but Liz Allan in the end convinces Harry that his real friends are Mary Jane and Peter, not the Green Goblin. With his connection to Harry broken, Norman Osborn remains trapped in limbo. The Green Goblin and Hobgoblin make their final appearance in "I Really, Really Hate Clones", the first part of the two-part series finale, in which they are working for Spider-Carnage and the Kingpin in an alternate reality.
Norman Osborn appears in The Spectacular Spider-Man (voiced by Alan Rachins) and by Steven Blum as the Green Goblin.
Norman is a ruthless businessman, inventor, gifted chemist, the ruthless owner of the leading chemical manufacturing firm based in New York City( which also had research divisions that dealt in other areas, especially in robotics), and the father of Harry Osborn. After being exposed to a chemical formula, he turned to supervillainy as Green Goblin, terrorizing New York City to become one of Spider-Man's greatest opponents along with Venom and Doctor Octopus.
He expresses disapproval at his son Harry ( who similar in the comics, he has a distant relationship with and considers to be weak) Harry for not getting offered the ESU lab internship that was given to his friend Peter Parker and pushes his son very hard, often coming across as cruel. Bent on being the number one in weapons tech, Norman embezzled the designs of Adrian Toomes flight tech and later tipped off the crime boss known as the Big Man to the TRI-CORP technology shipment. In this incarnation, he has similar objectives to his comic counterpart of Becoming the reigning crime boss in New York and killing Spider-Man. also, it's an episode long question, who the Goblin really is; Harry or Norman Osborn (especially because Norman and the Green Goblin met in the episode "The Uncertainty Principle", but in a later episode, "Norman" is revealed to be the Chameleon).
The show's version of Norman has the mainstream version's hairstyle and appearance, but with the personality of both the mainstream and the Ultimate version, while the Green Goblin wears a costume similar to his normal counterpart, but with some differences, including the lack of gloves, thick battle boots, a flying cap and a pumpkin that connects a tunic to his costume. He also lacks a bag, with the weapons being stored in the glider like the first film. The Goblin is shown in the show as extremely psychopathic — even more so than the other media adaptions, harkening more to his original appearance from the Ditko era, and acting much like the original green goblin (a slightly like the Joker). Like many of his previous incarnations the Green Goblin was always well-prepared for combat, usually rigging his surroundings with hidden pumpkin grenades and automatic grenade launchers. He rides on a bat-shaped "Goblin Glider" equipped with many deadly weapons, including razor-bats, electric gloves, knockout gas, Gob webs, and his signature Pumpkin Bombs to terrorize New York City and to kill spider-man.
The Green Goblin's first live action appearance (beyond a 1982 television commercial for the Atari video game) was in the blockbuster feature film Spider-Man (2002) as the main antagonist, which starred Willem Dafoe as Norman Osborn.
The Green Goblin, redesigned for the movie Spider-Man.played by Willem Dafoe.Dr. Norman Osborn is a brilliant scientist and businessman/industrialist who is known for his contributions to nanotechnology. As in the comics, he has a distant relationship with his son, Harry (James Franco), who resents his father's apparent favoritism toward his friend Peter Parker (Tobey Maguire). Norman takes an immediate liking to Peter when he is informed that Parker can understand his work, and later admires Parker's desire to make his own way in the world, rather than accepting Osborn's help. He is the head of Oscorp, a company contracted by the United States military to create a new supersoldier. Osborn's colleague, Dr. Mendel Stromm, feels it important to reveal to the military official overseeing the project that some of the test subjects have gone insane. Hearing this, Osborn is threatened with a tight deadline. Needing to prove his formula can succeed, Osborn experiments on himself and becomes the Green Goblin. The process drives him insane however, and he kills Stromm. The military decides to give the supersoldier contract to another company, Quest Aerospace, and in revenge, the Green Goblin kills several high-ranking military officers and Quest scientists who were present at the test. Although Quest Aerospace's prototype was destroyed, the company decides to expand and, in doing so, assumes control of Oscorp on the condition that Norman Osborn step down as CEO.
In retaliation, the Goblin kills the board of directors during a festival in Times Square, thus removing the last threat to his takeover of Oscorp, and inadvertently almost killing Mary Jane Watson (Kirsten Dunst). His appearance at the festival also marks the beginning of his animosity towards Spider-Man. Instead of hating his new enemy, however, Norman views Spider-Man as the son that he always wanted, and attempts to recruit him to his side.
The Goblin next leads an attack at the Daily Bugle to question J. Jonah Jameson (J. K. Simmons) for the identity of the photographer who takes pictures of Spider-Man. Peter is at the office during the attack and soon shows up as Spider-Man. The Goblin gasses him and takes him to a rooftop, where he offers Spider-Man a partnership and belittles his choice to become a hero, warning that eventually the city will turn against him. This starts to become true when the Bugle in response to the attack prints a story claiming the Goblin and Spider-Man are allies.
A few days later the Goblin baits Spider-Man into a burning building and asks him if he's decided to join him. When Spider-Man refuses, the Goblin attempts to kill him with razor bats and eventually slips away. Norman finds out Spider-Man's identity when, while visiting his son Harry (who is Peter's roommate) for Thanksgiving, he discovers that Peter has an identical wound to one he had inflicted on Spider-Man in the earlier fight. After deducing Spider-Man's identity, he decides to leave though Harry tries to stop him. Norman tells Harry to do what he wants with Mary Jane and then dump her fast, as he believes she is only interested in his money, as his own wife was. After hallucinating that his other persona informs him to attack Spider-Man's heart, he attacks and seriously injures Aunt May, then kidnaps Mary Jane and tells Spider-Man that he must choose either to save her or to save a group of children in a cable car. Both are thrown off the Queensboro Bridge, yet Spider-Man saves both the children and Mary Jane.
After saving the children and Mary Jane, Spider-Man is lured into an abandoned building. Goblin then throws a pumpkin bomb and it explodes in Spider-Man's face, sending him through a brick wall. As the Goblin brutally beats Spider-Man, he tells him how he will kill Mary Jane slowly. Enraged, Spider-Man attacks him, and gains the upper hand. After being defeated in their final battle and with his own personality apparently resurfaced, Norman removes his Goblin helmet to reveal himself to Spider-Man, and begs the hero to forgive him and protect him from the Goblin persona. At the same time however, Norman (with the Goblin still controlling him) secretly directs his glider to impale Spider-Man from behind. Norman states he was like a father to him and begs him to be a son to him, to which Peter retorts that he had a father: his late uncle, Benjamin Parker (Cliff Robertson). The Goblin responds by launching his glider.
Spider-Man senses the attack with his spider-sense and dodges, and the machine kills the Green Goblin by impaling him. Just before dying, Norman begs Spider-Man not to tell his son about his second identity. When Spider-Man takes Norman's corpse back to his mansion, Harry sees him placing his father’s dead body on a bed. Not knowing that his father was the Green Goblin, Harry holds Spider Man responsible for his death. At the funeral, Harry swears revenge on Spider-Man.
In the film, the Green Goblin pilots a high-tech Goblin Glider, armed with seeking missiles and machine guns. He also wears green armor that cybernetically connects him to his glider and weapons. He is seen using three varieties of his signature "pumpkin bombs": one which is a simple explosive; one that releases a bright, radioactive flash which reduces people to skeletons; and one that splits into flying, razor-bat blades. Rather than carrying a shoulder "bag of tricks", the weapons are contained in the glider and are ejected individually out of their storage compartment when desired. His suit is armed with knockout gas that is released from the wrists. His suit is also linked to the Goblin Glider, allowing him to control it remotely.
Willem Dafoe reprised his role of Norman Osborn/Green Goblin briefly in Spider-Man 2. In the movie, Harry Osborn, obsessed with defeating Spider-Man, forms a brief alliance with Doctor Octopus, which leads him to the discovery of Peter's secret identity. An evil vision of the late Norman Osborn subsequently speaks to Harry from inside of a mirror, demanding that Harry avenge his death. When Harry shatters the mirror, he discovers his father's hidden Goblin lair.
In Spider-Man 3, Harry Osborn, still obsessed with taking revenge on Spider-Man, has finally taken up the mantle of the New Goblin. When Harry suffers from amnesia and briefly forgets his vendetta, the vision of Norman returns in a successful attempt to sway him back to destroying Peter/Spider-Man by one purpose: "Attack his heart." After their confrontation, Harry's butler Bernard reveals to him the true circumstances of Norman's death, which convinces him to help Peter rescue Mary Jane from the Sandman and Venom.
Most recently, Green Goblin is one of the main antagonists (the other being Electro) of the 2014 film "The Amazing Spider-Man 2" played by Dave DeHann. In the film, he was Peter's best friend Harry Osborn, in which his father Norman Osborn (in this continuity) is dying from a infectious disease which is turning his neck green. As soon as Norman passes away, he purposefully transfers the disease to Harry. Harry begs for Peter to call Spider-Man so that he can get a trace of spider-DNA to cure his disease when Peter refuses, this drives Harry insane and yell out that he hates Spider-Man. After attempted to be ousted out of Oscorp for a secret plan to make genetic humanoid beings, Harry leaves the lab and goes to stage a breakout in the Ravencroft Institute. He frees Electro from prison and convinces him to team up with to get vengeance on Spider-Man and Oscorp for what they did to them. Harry holds one of the scientists at gunpoint and forces him to give him an injection of the Spider-Serum. The scientist does and this causes Harry's skin to turn a rotten green, his teeth to turn more sharp, and his ears to grow sharp and elf-like, as the scientist puts Oscorp labs on lock-down to prevent Harry from escaping. Unfortunately for him, Harry was able to escape using a bat glider and donning a green armored suit in the process and become the Green Goblin. After Electro's supposed death, Harry shows up laughing evilly as he is flying around Spider-Man and Gwen Stacy. After seeing Gwen and Spider-Man, he figures out that Peter is Spider-Man and that Peter is the one that refused to give him the serum. To get vengeance on Peter for taking his, "he's going to take away his"; he does this by flying toward Gwen and grabbing her to take her to the clock tower. Gwen tells Harry to stop, and he tells her yelling "Harry is dead!" When Peter tells Harry to put Gwen down, he literally does by dropping her off the clock tower. Luckilly, Peter was able to save her by webbing her so she can hold on to the web. Unfortunately, Green Goblin is still trying to attack Spider-Man in the clock tower gears. Peter restrains the Goblin for a bit but unfortunately, one of the gears cuts the web that is supporting Gwen causing her to fall off the gears to the edge. Peter quickly takes out the Goblin and tries to save Gwen by shoooting a web to save her, but Gwen's head hits really hard on the ground killing her instantly, which greatly affects Peter and the rest of Gwen's family. Harry is later incarcerated, and tells Gustav Fiers (a.k.a. The Gentleman) to assemble a team. They do so by breaking Aleksei Sytsevich out of prison and making him don robotic rhino armor, turning him into The Rhino and cause a rampage in New York. Peter is inspired by Gwen's graduation speech and becomes Spider-Man again to stop The Rhino.